Cervical erosion

Diagnostic

Basic information

In the modern rhythm of life, we are constantly haunted by stress, malnutrition, poor ecology, which reduce the body’s immunity and are a common cause of the development of most diseases. One of the most common gynecological diseases that can occur against a background of stress is cervical erosion.

Erosion of the cervix is an inflammatory disease of the female reproductive system. It is characterized by a violation of the integrity, the appearance of defects or wounds of the mucous membrane, the vaginal part of the cervix. Also, this disease is called – ectopia of the cervix.

Most often, women of reproductive age (20 to 30 years old) suffer from this. This is a benign disease, but sometimes it develops into an oncological form. Therefore, you need to regularly undergo examination by a gynecologist and treat cervical erosion in time.

The cervix is the lower segment of the uterus that has a cervical canal that connects the vagina to the uterus itself. Normally, the surface is smooth, solid pink, and without damage.

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Externally, the cervix consists of the following cell layers:

  • Pavement cell – which are part of the surface tissue, which protects against influences of a different nature
  • Ripening cells that are part of the intermediate layer
  • The basal layer, in which constant cell division occurs. It guarantees regeneration
  • The inner surface is composed of cylindrical cells that form a single-layer epithelium.Normally, these cells are located only in the cervical canal of the cervix and cannot be seen during examination

But sometimes, this layer begins to grow beyond the cervical canal, to the outer part of the cervix. And since it is of a deep red color, it is clearly visible and can be distinguished from pink squamous epithelium. This process is called ectopia.

Symptoms and causes of cervical erosion

Depending on the symptoms and causes, the following types of cervical erosion are distinguished:

  • Congenital erosion – adolescents get sick, because this process is genetically determined. She begins to manifest herself during the period of hormonal establishment in girls. In most cases, there are no clear symptoms of the disease and is diagnosed only during a routine examination. Most often, the disease goes away on its own without specific treatment, only under the strict supervision of doctors.
  • Purely erosion is represented by a round ulcer with a rich red color. If the wound is not deep and without infection, then the epithelium heals on its own, thanks to the basal layer. This type becomes more dangerous when an infection of the genital tract is attached.
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There are already specific reasons that provoke the appearance of the disease:

  • Vaginal trauma that may occur during abortion, childbirth, rough intercourse
  • Imbalance in the endocrine system
  • Indiscriminate intercourse
  • Venereal diseases
  • Papilloma
  • Inflammatory diseases of the pelvic organs
  • Sexual life from adolescence

With purely erosion, there may already be a bright symptomatology of the disease :

  1. Atypical odor of secretion
  2. Rash on the outer labia minora or labia majora
  3. Drawing or cutting pain in the lower abdomen
  4. Discomfort and soreness during intercourse
  5. Irritation of the vagina

But since there are no nerve endings in this part of the cervix, symptoms often appear when the erosion is quite large.

Pseudo-erosion

It develops due to the high levels of estrogen in the body of young girls. Often, the overgrowth extends beyond the cervix. Of the symptoms, it is worth noting a burning sensation, not only during intercourse, but also at rest. And also mucus with pus or blood may appear after menstruation. Without adequate treatment, the disease does not go away by itself. It is worth noting that during pregnancy, ectopia develops due to changes in the hormonal background and a decrease in immunity

Diagnostic program for cervical erosion

Diagnosis of the disease begins with the collection of anamnesis and complaints. Next, an examination is carried out in the gynecological chair. Using mirrors, the doctor visualizes the cervix and evaluates its appearance and structure. During this, he takes swabs from the cervix, which will then be evaluated in the laboratory for cytological analysis.

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For a more detailed examination and determination of the stage of the disease, the gynecologist may refer to a colposcopy. This is an instrumental diagnostic method using a special microscope. The doctor treats the cervix with a special solution and determines the structural changes in the cells of the cervix. Thus, it is possible to diagnose erosion even at the initial stages. Also, during colposcopy, a biopsy of the cervical tissue is performed for analysis for oncology.

In addition, a laboratory analysis is carried out for infectious diseases of the genitourinary system and for dysbiosis of the vaginal flora. But since erosion is often asymptomatic, it can be accidentally found during routine examinations.

Cervical treatment methods

If the disease does not manifest itself, then in most cases, simply vitamin and strengthening therapy is sufficient. But when the erosion has grown and vivid symptoms already appear, serious methods of treatment should be applied. In each case, therapy is selected individually, depending on the type of erosion and the stage of its development. The general health of the woman is also taken into account.

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  1. Drug therapy. Use anti-inflammatory drugs to relieve inflammation and pain. Hormonal drugs are prescribed for menstrual irregularities and infertility. If infectious pathogens are found during the examination, then it is possible to prescribe antibacterial and antiviral medicines.
  2. Radio wave surgery. One of the newest and most effective erosion treatments. With the help of special devices, a super-high-frequency electromagnetic field is created, which makes a hemostatic, anti-inflammatory, destructive effect on erosion. Also, this method is the least traumatic because radio waves do not injure the neck, but enhance the regeneration of local tissues.
  3. Cryodestruction. The most popular treatment for the initial stages of erosion. With the help of low temperatures, erosion is frozen. After that, its growth stops.
  4. Laser surgery. With the help of a laser, the site of the lesion is processed. This is recommended for young women planning to become pregnant, as the method does not affect reproductive function in any way and does not leave scars.
  5. Surgical methods. They are used for large erosion. Surgeons cut out most of the eroded cervix and perform plastic reconstruction.
  6. Chemical coagulation. With the help of a certain drug, the lesion is chemically cut out.

Cervical erosion must be taken very seriously. Since the disease can degenerate into a cancerous process. And also, quite often, it leads to infertility. Therefore, you need to undergo annual preventive examinations of a gynecologist, take regular tests and treat infectious diseases in a timely manner. After all, erosion can be asymptomatic until it begins to grow to a large size. And it is much easier to treat cervical erosion at the initial stage and in small sizes.

Other topics from the section

Cervical erosion

Cervical cancer Dysplasia of the cervix Myoma of the uterus

Team of doctors

Sylaiev Vadym Ihorovych

Obstetrician-gynecologist of the IVMED Clinic
Clinical practice since 2018

Nikitina Anastasiia Serhiivna

Medical Director of the clinic IVMED Zhytomyr, obstetrician-gynecologist of the highest category
clinical practice since 2010

Strelko Halyna Volodymyrivna

chief physician, obstetrician-gynecologist of the highest category, doctor of medical sciences, reproductologist
Medical practice since 2004