The cervix is the lower, cylindrical or conical portion of the uterus below the isthmus. The cervix is a smooth muscle organ that is formed by connective tissue, muscle and elastic fibers. It is the transition between the uterus and the vagina.
The cervix plays an important role in protecting the uterus, fallopian tubes, and ovaries from infection and bacteria. The main function is the production of mucus, which protects against bacterial flora. The second is conception, bearing and childbirth. Because it is the cervical canal that allows sperm to get from the vagina into the uterus. And already during pregnancy prevents premature birth and abortion.
And since this organ is directly adjacent to the external space, it is at constant risk of inflammation, infections, and more. Also, more than 50% of all cancers of the female reproductive system fall on the cervix. Therefore, all women are advised to undergo regular examinations and treat cervical diseases on time.
Types of diseases
Pathologies of the cervix are the most common diseases of the internal genital organs of the female body. Their danger lies in the fact that, if they are present, a cancerous neoplasm can develop. In this regard, it is necessary to take seriously and responsibly their prevention, diagnosis and treatment.Read more
Diseases of the cervix are divided into the following types:
- inflammatory processes of the reproductive system;
- background diseases (leukoplakia, erosion, pseudo-erosion, cervical ectopia, condyloma, polyps);
- dysplasia and precancerous diseases, which almost always become the precursors of oncology;
- congenital malformations of the cervix;
- cervical cancer.
Causes of pathologies
Cervical pathology is a generalized term that means a number of diseases that affect the cervix. The main danger is that if the onset of the disease is missed, it can spread to other organs.Read more
Their main causes are considered:
- The nature of the onset of menstrual function. Early or late onset of menarche is known to increase the risk of disease.
- Hormonal imbalance: congenital or acquired
- Sexual anamnesis. It is believed that early onset of sexual activity, frequent change of partners create conditions for infection of the reproductive system. This worsens the course of background diseases and promotes oncogenesis. Also, after the first intercourse, doctors recommend to undergo a full gynecological examination.
- Inflammatory diseases of the lower reproductive system, which can be caused by common flora or specific urogenital infections (chlamydia, Trichomonas, etc.)
- Viral infection. These include herpes simplex virus and human papillomavirus (HPV), which increase the risk of dysplasia and cervical epithelium cancer by 20 times.
- Mechanical trauma (birth process with complications, abortion).
- Extragenital pathologies.
- Genetic disorders.
- Poor lifestyle (junk food, smoking, alcoholic beverages).
Pathologies of the cervix are a very common manifestation and, as a rule, are determined on a routine gynecological examination in every third woman of childbearing age.Read more
The main methods for diagnosing these diseases include:
- Vaginal examination.
- Urogenital smear to assess microflora and the presence of pathological bacteria.
- A smear for cytology to assess the state of the epithelium.
- Tests for infections that are sexually transmitted.
- Transvaginal ultrasound of the cervix;
- Biopsy of the cervix (determines the precancerous condition).
Basic treatment methods
Treatment of diseases of the cervix is an individual approach to each patient. During the first meeting, the gynecologist gets acquainted with the medical history and symptoms. Conducts a gynecological examination and prescribes the necessary examinations.
During the diagnosis, it is determined if the disease is benign, then a gynecologist is engaged in their observation and treatment. When the process has developed into a malignant one, an oncologist’s consultation is necessary.
Cervical pathologies are treated conservatively and surgically. The tactics are chosen individually for each patient and depends on the nature of the disease, the reasons that it was caused and on its duration. Drug therapy is aimed at fighting infection. As for surgical treatment, today an innovative technique is used – radio wave surgery of the cervix (without scars). With the help of radio waves, during a short procedure, the neoplasm is removed from the surface epithelium of the cervix.
The main advantages are safety for the patient’s health, minimal risk of bleeding, and atraumatism (even for nulliparous women). Also, the radiosurgical method of treatment halves the epithelialization time, that is, it promotes rapid healing.