ART gives good results in infertility treatment. These technologies are treatment methods in which some or all of the stages of fertilization and early formation of embryos occur outside the woman’s body.
What is Assisted Reproductive Technology
It is a general term including the methods used to conceive. In addition, among them there are reproductive technologies involving the use of donor gametes, as well as surrogacy. Certain types of methods are used by spouses with hereditary pathologies, as well as a high probability of genetic abnormalities in a child.
In addition, the methods include hormonal stimulation of ovulation used when it is impossible to have children due to endocrine diseases. Also, ART is used in the case of age-related decrease in fertility.
The key aim of ART is the birth of healthy offspring with the mother’s health maintenance. ART protocols are based on the fact that the time from the first visit to the birth of the baby should be reduced and in the ideal case last no more than two years.
Types of Assisted Reproductive Technology
One of the most popular methods is in vitro fertilization (IVF), in which fertilization and the first days of fetation occur outside the body of the expectant mother.
This method usually involves the following:
- ovarian stimulation
- oocyte retrieval
- fertilization process involving artificial insemination
- oocyte cultivation
- embryo transfer
Only one or a few embryos can be transferred in the uterus in order to exclude multiple pregnancies. The number of embryos depends on the patient’s age and the risk of reaction to the procedure. If several embryos are viable during artificial insemination, cryopreservation is required. In subsequent cycles of IVF, these embryos can be used as material for fertilization, if the previous procedure did not give any effect.
Oocyte donation is used when the patient is unable to conceive a child with her own eggs. In this case, the donor’s eggs are used, which are fused with the male gametes.
If a man is infertile in a couple, then they use such a procedure as sperm donation. Also, this method is recommended for single female patients under 38 years old.
In case of both spouses’ infertility, embryo donation is indicated for them. These are mainly complex cases of diseases, as well as several unsuccessful IVF attempts.
Developmental abnormalities of a congenital nature are quite often observed after in vitro fertilization, however, doctors cannot exactly explain what caused this phenomenon either procedure or factors of infertility.Read more
Gamete intrafallopian transfer
This is an alternative to IVF. The method is not used so often only for the reason that in vitro fertilization is more effective.
The procedure is often used if:
- the patient is diagnosed with unexplained infertility
- endometriosis with normal tubal function was found
The frequency of offspring is usually 25-35%.
IntraCytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI)
There are the indications to conduct this procedure:
- other treatments for infertility were unsuccessful
- severe sperm dysfunction.